题目1 Gene Test May Improve Breast Cancer Treatment
A test that checks the expression of 70 genes associated with breast cancer can help doctors determine a patient's risk of cancer recurrence or death, an international study finds.
The study included 307 breast cancer patients assigned to high- and low-risk groups based on their scores from the 70-gene signature test and standard risk-assessment using a software program. The patients were followed for 13.6 years.
The gene-signature test was a more accurate predictor of cancer recurrence and death than the software, the researchers found. The study also concluded that the gene test included most of the prognostic information provided by traditional risk classifiers.
"These results indicate that the gene signature adds independent prognostic information," reported scientists at the Netherlands Cancer Institute in Amsterdam.
The findings were published in the Sept. 6 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
The 70-gene signature test will be evaluated in a larger study of 6,000 women with node-negative early-stage breast cancer. The trial will assess whether the test can improve identification of women who can safely be spared adjuvant chemotherapy
题目2 Second-hand smoke exposure boosts miscarriage risk
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Pregnant women who are exposed to second-hand smoke may be at heightened risk for suffering miscarriages, according to research from Sweden.
"Given the high prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and the fact that spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse outcome of pregnancy, the public health consequences of passive smoking regarding early fetal loss may be substantial," researchers conclude in a report in the journal Epidemiology.
Previous studies of passive smoke exposure in pregnancy have relied on reports from study participants themselves, and have had inconsistent results
To evaluate nicotine exposure more precisely, they measured study participants' blood levels of cotinine -- a marker for nicotine exposure.
The researchers matched 463 women who had miscarried at 6 to 12 weeks of pregnancy with 864 women at the same stage of pregnancy who had not miscarried.
Twenty-four percent of the women had cotinine levels indicating passive smoke exposure, compared to 19 percent of the controls.
Women who smoked were more than twice as likely as nonsmokers to miscarry, the researchers found. They also found that those whose cotinine levels indicated they were exposed to second hand-smoke were 67 percent more likely to miscarry than those who weren't exposed to second-hand smoke.
作者:admin@医学,生命科学 2011-08-23 05:12