Acupuncture is one of three professions, along with herbal medicine andChinese medicine, which are jointly engaged in the process of workingtowards statutory regulation. The acupuncture profession is a complexmixture of full-time professional acupuncturists, statutorily regulatedhealthcare professionals who use acupuncture in their day-to-day practice,and a large number of users of clearly defined but limited techniques forspecific therapeutic purposes. In the United Kingdom there is as yet no singlebody representing all acupuncturists, although all of the main associationswith histories of thirty or more years representing the profession are nowgrouped under the aegis of the Acupuncture Stakeholders Group (ASG). Thisgroup, which operates by consensus decision, may well develop into a centralreference point for the profession and the public after regulation.
Acupuncture is a primary healthcare profession, which emphasises, but is notlimited to, the use of holistic traditional East-Asian medical theory, art andscience to assess, diagnose and treat illness, injury, pain and otherconditions. It makes use of safe and appropriate procedures taking intoaccount individual variations in health status to promote, maintain or restorephysical, psychological and social health and wellbeing.
Acupuncturists work in a range of healthcare settings, and operate both asindependent practitioners and as members of integrated healthcare teams.The majority of full-time acupuncturists work as self-employed individualsindependently or in group practices. Statutory regulated healthcareprofessionals (e.g. doctors, nurses, physiotherapists and others) andsubstance-misuse workers, may use acupuncture alongside or within theirexisting statutorily regulated activity in hospitals, community settings, GPpractices or in the private sector. Acupuncturists often operate asindependent healthcare professionals, from whom patients may seek directcare without referral from another healthcare professional, but will referpatients on where appropriate or liaise with other healthcare professionalswhere there is shared responsibility for patients.
A distinctive feature of the practice of acupuncture is the ability of individualpractitioners to use solid sterilised needles, which are inserted into specifictissues of the human body for disease prevention, therapy or maintenance ofhealth. Various other techniques, both invasive and non-invasive, are oftenperformed or prescribed with acupuncture. These allied techniques andmodalities may include electrical and magnetic stimulation, moxibustion andother forms of heat therapy, sound, light and vibration therapy, cuppingtechniques, traditional East-Asian massage, lifestyle and dietary counselling,43exercise and breathing routines such as tai ji quan, qi gong, andacupressure.
Acupuncture can be an effective treatment intervention as a sole treatmentor as a supportive or adjunctive treatment to other medical treatments. Itspractice is characterised by reflective behaviour and systematic clinicalreasoning, both contributing to, and underpinning, a problem-solvingapproach to patient-centred care.
Acupuncture practice is supported and influenced by an increasing body ofclinical research some of it of high-quality (see Appendix A). Whilst much ofthe research has been performed overseas, and may not always meet therigorous standards of Western research, overall the body of evidencesuggests widespread effectiveness of acupuncture in treating many diseasestates and conditions. Practice is informed by acupuncture-specific researchas well as general scientific and medical literature (that includes traditionalclinical experience extending back a millennium or more), and also byprofessional and clinical standards and clinical guidelines. In this way, theacupuncture profession engages in evidence-based practice.
In the assessment, management, treatment and evaluation of an individual'sneeds, acupuncture practitioners will take into account the current physical,psychological, cultural and social factors and their influence on theindividual's functional ability. Practice also takes into account, whereappropriate, the needs and perspectives of other healthcare professionals inorder to provide a coherent and holistic approach that maximisesindependence and function.
There are a number of accrediting bodies within the United Kingdom. Therange of courses which they accredit is broadly split into three groups:undergraduate degree-level, full-time acupuncture training; postgraduatetraining in Western medical acupuncture undertaken by regulated healthcareprofessionals; and short courses in defined uses of ear acupuncture andother micro-system treatment.
Some acupuncture qualifying programmes are validated by independentaccrediting bodies such as the British Acupuncture Accreditation Board, whichwas established in 1991 and singled out as an exemplar of best practice inthe House of Lords’ Select Committee on Science and Technology’s Report onComplementary and Alternative Medicine (House of Lord’s 2000). Manyprogrammes are jointly validated by higher education institutions (HEIs) asBSc-degree and diploma programmes. Postgraduate and non-degree leveltraining is also recognised by a variety of accrediting and validating bodies.
作者:admin@医学,生命科学 2011-04-07 18:32