Research offers hope to increase islet supply to cure type 1 diabetes
Researchers at the University of Minnesota's Diabetes Institute for Immunology and Transplantation have successfully reversed diabetes in monkeys using transplanted islet cells from pigs.
Survival of pig islet transplants was made possible with a novel immunosuppressive protocol. Graft survival did not require genetic modification of donor pigs or coating or encapsulation of donor islets.
Researchers have already had success reversing type 1 diabetes in humans through islet transplantation, however, the demand for islet cells grossly outweighs the supply. In order to make islet transplantation a viable solution for the tens of thousands of people with difficult-to-manage diabetes, a safe and reliable source of islet cells must be found.
"These results suggest it is feasible to use pig islet cells as a path to a far-reaching cure for diabetes," said Bernhard J. Hering, M.D., associate professor of surgery and lead investigator. "Now that we have identified critical pathways involved in immune recognition and rejection of pig islet transplants, we can begin working on better and safer immunosuppressant therapies with the eventual goal of bringing the treatment to people."
This unprecedented progress on islet xenotransplantation will be released online Feb. 19, 2006 in the medical journal, Nature Medicine.
If research continues to be successful, Hering believes it may be possible to start clinical trials in humans in the next three years.
To begin working toward the goal of using this technology to help people, Spring Point Project, a non-profit corporation, has taken concrete steps to build and operate biosecure barrier facilities to raise high-health pigs for planned pig islet transplant trials in humans.
Since it will take time to build biosecure facilities that meet the federal requirements for using animal tissues in humans, the Spring Point Project will proceed on a parallel track with the research at the University. The goal is to have suitable donor pigs available by the time the University has refined the immunosuppressive treatment to a point that makes it safe for clinical trials to begin.
Islet transplants seek to address an unmet medical need in people with type 1 and possibly type 2 diabetes who suffer frequent acute and severe chronic complications. The process is performed by isolating islet cells from a donor pancreas and transplanting them into the portal vein of the liver in people with diabetes. If successful, transplanted islets will sense blood glucose levels on a minute-to-minute basis and release the appropriate amount of insulin to achieve tight blood glucose control. Insulin injections are no longer needed in recipients of successful transplants.
Transplantation also offers hope in reducing the risk of developing debilitating secondary complications of diabetes, such as damage to the heart and blood vessels, eyes, nerves, and kidneys. 认领。
“这些结果表明用猪胰岛细胞作为未来研究治愈糖尿病的途径是可行的。” 外科医生和首席研究员Bernhard J. Hering, M.D.说，“现在我们已经确定了涉及猪胰岛细胞免疫识别和排斥的关键途径，我们正开始研究更好更安全的最终应用于人类治疗的免疫抑制疗法。”
在异种胰岛移植上的前所未有的进展将会在自然内科学医学期刊(the medical journal, Nature Medicine. )2006.2.19期中披露。
为了使这个技术帮助人类，Spring Point Project，一个非盈利组织，开始实施具体的步骤，以建立和运作生物安全障碍设施(biosecure barrier facilities)来增加计划在人身上进行猪胰岛移植实验的高健康猪。
因为需要花费时间来建立符合将动物组织用于人类的法律规定的生物生物安全障碍设施(biosecure barrier facilities)， Spring Point Project计划将继续对该大学的研究进行平行跟踪。为了到时找到合适的供体猪，这所大学已经精确地进行抑制免疫治疗，确保开始临床实验的安全。
作者:admin@医学,生命科学 2011-08-31 05:16